An American actor, producer and director. He has performed in leading roles in a variety of films, ranging from romantic comedies and dramas to science fiction and action movies. Cage is known for his prolificacy, appearing in at least one film per year, nearly every year since 1980 (with the exception of 1985 and 1991). In the early years of his career, Cage starred in critically acclaimed films such as Valley Girl (1983), Racing With the Moon (1984), Birdy (1985), Peggy Sue Got Married (1986), Raising Arizona (1987), Moonstruck (1987), Vampire's Kiss (1989), Wild at Heart (1990), Honeymoon in Vegas (1992), and Red Rock West (1993). Cage received an Academy Award, a Golden Globe, and a Screen Actors Guild Award for his performance as an alcoholic Hollywood writer in Leaving Las Vegas (1995) before coming to the attention of wider audiences with mainstream films such as The Rock (1996), Face/Off (1997), Con Air (1997), City of Angels (1998) and National Treasure (2004). He earned his second Academy Award nomination for his performance as Charlie and Donald Kaufman in Adaptation (2002). In 2002, he directed the film Sonny for which he was nominated for Grand Special Prize at Deauville Film Festival. Cage owns a production company, Saturn Films, and produced films such as Shadow of the Vampire (2000) and The Life of David Gale (2003). Though his performances in The Weather Man (2005), Lord of War (2005), The Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call New Orleans (2009), and Kick-Ass (2010) earned critical acclaim, and films such as Ghost Rider (2007) and Knowing (2009) were box office successes, Cage has been strongly criticized in recent years for his choice of roles, some of which have been universally panned. Most recently, he voiced the character of Grug in the animated film The Croods.